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Introduction
  • Inadequate tissue perfusion as consequence of circulatory fluid loss.

Read the complete article; Shock in the Medical Library >  Pathophysiology.

Clinical Presentation
  • Decreased mental status
  • Symptomatic hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Cardiovascular response (pulse or blood pressure) to changes in posture
  • Tachypnoea
Exclusion Criteria
Exclusion Criteria
Risk Assessment
  • Level of consciousness is a good indicator of cerebral perfusion
  • Hypotension is a late sign of shock
  • Beta blockers blunt cardio vascular responses to hypovolaemia
  • Aggressive fluid management may dislodge clots from micro circulation
  • Minimise on scene time as much as is practical with ongoing management undertaken during transport.
Management
Intermediate Care (EMT / Level 2)
  • Apply cardiac monitor if trained and authorised
  • Administer pain relief as soon as practicable
  • Monitor patient persistently, recording full observations every 10 minutes (or 5 minutes if time critical)
  • Transport Priority 1 if patient time critical, pre-notifying receiving facility
Advanced Care (AP)
  • Apply cardiac monitor
  • Establish vascular access
  • Consider fluid therapy
  • Administer pain relief as soon as practicable
  • Monitor patient persistently, recording full observations every 10 minutes (or 5 minutes if time critical)
  • Transport Priority 1 if patient time critical, pre-notifying receiving facility
Critical & Extended Care (CCP, PSO)
  • As per Advanced Care (AP) guidelines
Additional Information
  • Clinical deterioration
  • Hemodynamic instability
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Cardiac Arrest

References
References
Key Terms & Links
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