AbductionMoving away from the sagittal plane (ant: adduction)
AdductionMoving toward the sagittal plane (ant: abduction)
AnteriorToward the front
Caudal or caudadTail, tail end
Cephalad or cranialHead
CircumductionCombined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation
DepressionLowering a structure (ant: elevation)
DistalAway from a reference point (e.g. an extremity)
ElevationRaising a structure (ant: depression)
ExtensionIncreasing angle with frontal plane (ant: flexion)
FlexionDecreasing angle with frontal plane (ant: extention)
InferiorLower or below
LateralAway from the midline of the body
Lateral rotation Movement around an axis or bone away from the midsagittal plane
MedialToward the midline of the body
Medial rotation Movement around an axis or bone toward the midsagittal plane
PosteriorToward the back
ProtractionMoving forward along a surface (ant: retraction)
ProximalToward a reference point (e.g. an extremity)
RetractionMoving backward along a surface (ant: protraction)
SuperiorUpper or above


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