Quick Chart
  • Pain is an unpleasant sensation and emotional response to that sensation.
Clinical Presentation
  • Perform OPQRST assessment:
    • Onset
    • Provocation or palliation
    • Quality of pain
    • Region and radiation
    • Severity
    • Time
  • Choice of pain relief is dependent on the aetiology of the pain and the pharmacology of the medication.
  • PAINLOGTM is a visual analogue for assessing changes in pain level. Ask the patient to slide the pointer to match their pain level and record the score.  Reassess as required.
Exclusion Criteria
Exclusion Criteria
Risk Assessment
  • Bradypnoea & hypoventilation is a common side effect of analgesics.
  • All patients receiving pain medication must be monitored with a pulse oximeter.
  • Patients under extended care (e.g. 'ramped' patients) have usually received analgesia prior. Loading doses are not indicated in this setting.
Primary Care
Non-Pharmacological Interventions:
  • Communication:
    • Empathy
    • Reassurance
    • Distraction
  • Other:
    • Patient Positioning
    • Immobilisation & Splinting
    • Cooling / Icing
Intermediate Care (EMT / Level 2)
Pharmacological Intervention:
Advanced Care (AP)
Critical & Extended Care (CCP, PSO)
Pharmacological Intervention:
Additional Information
  • Record pain score before and after treatment to assess effectiveness.
  • Regular vital signs recordings are necessary to confirm effectiveness as well as checking for possible adverse effects.
  • Beware of the synergistic effects of combining pain relieving medications.
  • Allow sufficient time for medication to take effect and follow the time intervals as described in the individual medication guidelines.

Key Terms & Links


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Analgesia Infographic
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