UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED

Introduction

Lignocaine is an amide-type local anaesthetic that prevents the initiation and propagation of nerve impulses. It also has antidysrhythmic properties because it stabilises all potentially excitable membranes including the conduction system of the heart.

Pharmacokinetics

Onset

Rapid 5-10 minutes and duration of nerve blockade is 1-1.5 hours.

Absorption

After absorption into the general circulation or after IV injection, the drug is redistributed rapidly to tissues, especially the heart.

Metabolism

In the liver Excretion: Via the kidneys

Pharmacodynamics

Desired Effects

Local anaesthesia by topical, infiltration, nerve block, epidural, spinal, ophthalmic and intravenous regional anaesthesia routes.

Side Effects

  • Tinnitus, dizziness, anxiety, confusion, perioral numbness
  • Cardiovascular effects:
    • Bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • dysrhythmias
  • CNS effects
  • Respiratory depression

Duration of Action

The elimination half-life is 90-120 minutes.

Other Drug Interactions

Other anti-dysrhythmics, phenytoin and alcohol may potentiate the cardiovascular effects of lignocaine.


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