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Shoulder dystocia is best defined as the need for additional obstetric manoeuvres to effect the birth of the shoulders of the baby. The incidence varies around 1%, with a high associated perinatal morbidity and mortality despite appropriate management. Maternal morbidity is increased due mostly to post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) and fourth degree perineal tears. The most common fetal injury is brachial plexus palsies; with research indicating that the frequency of injury remains constant regardless of operator expertise (KEMH, 2016).

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