Refers to abnormally of muscle cells resulting in large ventricles or atria resulting in reduced functions, creating potential arrythmias, caused by:
Can lead to having atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) - Usually P-wave is impacted & examined in V1 + Lead II.
Usually from mitral valve impairment causing resistance to flow, hence enlarging the left atrium – A second hump in P-wave is seen showing right atrium contraction before the left.
Pressure in the pulmonary system or resistance in valve can cause right atrium hypertrophy in order to pump blood to the ventricles. This generates a stronger impulse (hence higher P-wave amplitude) where the wave can be seen as a sharp peak – P-wave amplitude is > 2.5mm
Implies enlargement in both left & right atrium (seen as large P-wave in Lead II, and large biphasic P-wave in V1).
Also known as left/right ventricular hypertrophy (LVH/RVH), can lead to having ventricular tachycardia (VT) – Usually QRS is impacted (often tall QRS complex due to increased muscle mass).
Usually V1-V2, & V5-V6 are impacted – Generally by aortic stenosis, insufficiency or hypertension, overloading causes broader QRS where longer depolarisation occurs in the left ventricles.
Usually, left ventricle’s vector is larger than the right, therefore QRS is dominated by left ventricle. However, right ventricle can be seen in QES due to hypertrophy – This can be by lung or heart disease, and valve impairment.
Detection is low to detect biventricular hypertrophy due to both vectors cancelling each other out when both vectors are hypertrophied.
When LVH is shown, an examination should occur to see if RVH is present - shown by:
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|Thanh Bui, AP60825|
Event Medic, Emergency Medical Technician &
Volunteer Development Officer
Andrew Moffat, AP16790